Arquivo do mês: janeiro 2014

ESFREGUE-SE COM PALAVRAS

ESFREGUE-SE COM PALAVRAS

901748_10202528235789190_1006224296_o

 (tradução de Marcia Neves Pinto do texto publicado em http://iynaus.org/yoga-samachar/fall-2011winter-2012/sutra-study-why)

“Esfregue-se com cada palavra através do trabalho e da prática. Esfregar significa experimentar.” B. K. S. Iyengar

Estudantes e professores da tradição Iyengar aprendem os nomes das posturas em sânscrito e, ao longo do tempo, o significado desses nomes em sânscrito (por exemplo, ut significa para cima ou extremo, tanu significa alongar, portanto, uttānāsana significa a postura do alongamento extremo). Os nomes sânscritos nos ensinam acerca da estrutura e do intento da postura. Aprofundamos nosso entendimento na medida em que refletimos sobre o nome.

Cada palavra, em qualquer língua, tem seu significado e ressonância particulares, não há sinônimos. Na tradução de um idioma para outro algo é sempre perdido ou alterado.

Por exemplo, como diz B. K. S. Iyengar na obra Light on the Yoga Sūtras, “é extremamente difícil transmitir o significado da palavra citta.” É um substantivo derivado da raiz sânscrita cit, que significa perceber. Nossas palavras “mente” ou “consciência”, frequentemente utilizadas para traduzir citta, não transmitem a palavra no sentido em que Patañjali a emprega: um aspecto da natureza que pode trazer harmonia à menor de todas as partículas até a maior das maiores, e ainda assim não ser ele próprio consciência pura.

Se traduzo citta como mente, fico limitada neste parâmetro quando aprendo que a definição de yoga nos Yoga Sūtras de Patañjali  é yogaḥ cittavṛtti nirodhaḥ” (I.2): yoga é o aquietamento dos movimentos da mente.

Vṛtti, que pode ser literalmente traduzido como um giro (da raiz vṛt, girar, como em parivrtta trikonasana), pode ser entendido como um pensamento ou sentimento. É um movimento em citta e é certamente uma perturbação em citta. Ainda assim, se entendo citta como sendo a minha mente ou consciência e se entendo a minha mente como sendo meus pensamentos, minha consciência como sendo meus sentimentos, o que resta da minha mente ou da minha consciência, se meus sentimentos e pensamentos param? É um terror existencial. É através das palavras em sânscrito em si mesmas que me aproximei da mensagem de Patañjali: mesmo o mais auspicioso vṛtti é um distúrbio para o vasto conhecimento de citta.

Na Árvore do Yoga, o Sr. Iyengar escreve: “você precisa esfregar-se com palavras e trabalhos. Coloque as palavras ao teste da sua experiência. Não se deixe levar pelas minhas palavras ou de quem quer que seja. Esfregue seu corpo com cada palavra através do trabalho e da prática. Esfregar significa experimentar. Vá! Descubra!”

Se me “esfrego” com essas duas intraduzíveis palavras, vṛtti e citta, então me abro para a possibilidade de que haja um conhecimento, uma visão, um sentimento, que não é um “pensamento”, um “conceito” – não é mesmo sequer exprimível em palavras. Isto é usar as palavras para ir além delas, mover-se em direção à verdadeira meta, que é, para usar uma frase da tradição oriental, “a paz que vai além de toda a compreensão.” – Julia Shaida.

Os sūtras que conheço de memória se tornaram a linha de vida espiritual da minha prática. Escrever um sūtra no coração é vesti-lo para sempre.

 

N.T.: A frase citada por Julia Shaida é extraída do texto sagrado da kaballah Tesouros escondidos da Cabala Antiga, por Elias Gewurz, [1918], ebook, p. 82: “The Peace That Passeth Understanding.”

(Julia Shaida vive e leciona Iyengar yoga em Westchester County, New York, e era, à época da publicação do artigo original, certificada no nível Introdutórioy II. Carrie Owerko vive e leciona em New York City e era, à época da publicação do artigo original, certificada no nível Sênior I.)

 

 

YSP Study Group – Sutra 2.39: aparigraha

YSP Study Group – Sutra 2.39

BY SUBHASH, ON JANUARY 16TH, 2014

अपरिग्रहस्थैर्ये जन्मकथंतासंबोधः॥३९॥

 

aparigrahasthairye janmakathaMtaasaMbodhaH

aparigraha=non-covetousness; sthairye=constancy; janmakathaMtaa=how and why of birth; saMbodhaH=knowledge, thorough illumination

Sw. Satchidananda

“When non-greed is confirmed, a thorough illumination of the how and why of one’s birth comes”.

Aparigraha is abstention from greed or hoarding, or not receiving gifts. Accepting gifts may bind us and make us lose our neutrality. We may feel obligated to return the offer one day. The gift giver may also have expectations of something in return. We want to be free of any mental binding whether we are the gift giver or the gift receiver.

When the mind is calm and clear and free of desires and obligations, we gain capacity to see how our desires caused our present birth.

 

Bryant

“When refrainment from covetousness becomes firmly established, knowledge of the whys and wherefores of births manifests”.

On perfecting the yama of aparigraha, the yogi knows exactly who he or she was in a previous birth. The connection between cause and effect is hereby revealed since each birth, human or animal, is the outcome of previous karma. The yogi comes to know not only the previous birth but also how his/her present activities will impact future births. Buddha, for example, was able to recall thousands of his past lives.

Non-covetousness involves not coveting any means of enjoyment, including those for the body. When awareness is focused inward and not dissipated externally, it is channeled into one’s chitta, the repository of past samskaras, thus giving access to the past lives. Chitta can be imagined as a lake and samskaras as pebbles. Only when the lake (mind) is calm can we see the pebbles (samskaras) clearly. The chitta can be purified by maximizing the sattva (purity) potential of the mind.

Discussion

(Commentary by Kailasam Iyer)

YSP II-39 Non-covetous state of mind is open to knowledge of the true meaning of life.

The term Aparigraha in Patanjali and the phrase atmabhavajignasa in Vyasa’s commentary are the key concepts for understanding the import of this sutra. Aparigraha refers to a state of minimalism as a consumer. Not just “not wanting” but “rejecting”. Again, we are confronted with the questions of what belongs to us and what doesn’t and what rights we have what doesn’t belong to us. We are part of the Universe and we have a right to exist but when does need transform into greed ? Also, the consideration has to extend beyond material things to intellectual property, fame, limelight, attention, dignity, personal space, etc., When the practitioner refrains from appropriating anything more than the most minimal needs, the hypothesis in this sutra is, the mind is now free to engage in thoughts of why such a need for greed arises in the first place. A certain vividness about our samskaras occurs in the mind. An understanding of the effect of past on the present and a freedom from having to react in a certain way in the future arise. Free will begins to rule over instinct.


scorpion

Well-known psychotherapists of the twentieth century had come to understand that the conscious part of the mind is only the tip of the iceberg and that we are driven by what is hidden in the unconscious part. They had devised many techniques ( dream analyses, word/picture association, etc., ) to delve into the hidden part of the psyche. The ancients did the same thing by not wanting things. I get the feeling that if you don’t have a dog in the race you are likely to see and enjoy the race for what it is. I am staying away from all discussions of past and future lives of beings. I’d like you to think about a phenomenon in biology called “molting”. Shedding of restrictive clothing in order to be able to move forward over and over in one lifetime as in the attachment.

The slogan is “What do I want? Why do I want it?” and not “when do I want it?”.

It’s always good to remember that this step is in the context of the path to attaining knowledge of discrimination between Purusha and Prakriti OR driving Prakriti back to its unmanifest state..

 

 

Return to Taipei

Bobby Clennell

Unknown copy 3

Here’s the block in the lumbar again. In Taipei, the blocks were thin and wide (better than regular blocks for this purpose). We belted them top and bottom, and then practiced the standing poses. The block is particularly helpful in Virabadrasana I (Warrior Pose I); it serves as a tactile reminder not to drop the lumbar spine forward. The students didn’t want to take them off!  Use the block the same way in Urdhva Dhanurasana and see the effect it has on your pose. (Not for pregnancy!)

Ver o post original

Meditação na prática e no dia a dia

 

Quando se fala em meditação, a gente logo pensa em alguém sentado de pernas cruzadas sobre uma almofada no chão, com a coluna ereta, as mãos apoiadas sobre os joelhos, os olhos cerrados, a boca levemente aberta e um silêncio sepulcral dominando o ambiente. De fato, essa é uma maneira clássica de meditar, mas não a única. Existem várias técnicas para mergulhar nesse estado de introspecção. Dá para meditar de olhos abertos, ouvindo música, andando ou durante tarefas cotidianas como passar a roupa, cozinhar e tomar banho. Sim, porque meditação não é uma ação, e sim um estado de espírito. “Meditação é a qualidade de estar consciente e alerta. O que quer que você faça com consciência é meditação. A ação não é a questão, mas a qualidade que você traz para a ação”, afirma em um de seus livros o líder espiritual indiano Mohan Chandra Rajneesh, também…

Ver o post original 697 mais palavras

Yoga como caminho para a Meditação

Por Márcia Heder*

A palavra Yoga (sânscrito) significa união, comunhão, integração. Yoga é um tanto um instrumento, como o próprio estado integrado do ser; da mente com o corpo, do Ser individual com o Ser universal.

A meta final do Yoga é o estado de meditação. Meditação  é um estado de consciência, mas é popularmente conhecido como a técnica utilizada para atingi-lo.

Leia também:
Benefícios para quem pratica Yoga
Hatha Yoga equilibra o sistema nervoso e o respiratório

Há mais de cinco mil anos os Rishis (mestres que se  dedicavam ao caminho espiritual na Índia Antiga) passavam seu conhecimento de mestre a discípulo oralmente, não havia nenhum registro sobre os ensinamentos, que eram secretos e passados para discípulos merecedores, que conseguiam vencer as duras provações do caminho espiritual.

Por volta dos anos 200 AC, Patanjali, um estudioso da época, organizou de forma sitemática os ensinamentos do Yoga

Ver o post original 770 mais palavras

PRANA E APANA

IPhone 052

PRANA E APANA

YOGAJOURNAL.COM

The great eighth-century yogi and philosopher Shankaracharya said, “Yoga asana is that in which meditation flows spontaneously and ceaselessly, not that which destroys happiness.” In other words, when yoga poses are well aligned, the breath flows right up the front of the spine into the spacious radiance of the body’s central axis. The experience is beautiful and sublime.

Realistically, our practices can rarely be called sublime. The mind and ego seem programmed to stay out of the central axis, making practice a superficial exercise in self-improvement rather than the precise observation of, and insight into, the nature of our bodies and minds.

An excellent way to counteract this tendency is to link the two basic internal patterns that control inhaling and exhaling. These are called prana (upward spreading breath) and apana (downward contracting breath). The prana controls inhaling; it is felt as an upward floating, branching, and flowering pattern. Its home is the core of the heart. The apana controls exhaling. It is the downward rooting flow, which contracts, or tones, into a seed point at the center of the pelvic floor. With each breath you take, prana and apana organize the movement of bones and muscles. Prana lengthens, or extends, the spine (as in a backbend) and brings the legs into internal rotation; apana rounds, or flexes, the spine (as in a forward bend) and rotates the legs externally.

Two pillars of yoga practice – Abhyasa (practice) and Vairagya (non-attachment)

Two pillars of yoga practice – Abhyasa (practice) and Vairagya (non-attachment)

Patanjali infantil

by Yoga with Subhash

Patanjali, in the Yoga Sutras, has given us this definition of Yoga:

Yogash-chitta-vritti-nirodhah (sutra 1.2)“Yoga is defined as the cessation of the fluctuations of the mind-complex”.
In practical terms, this sutra can be translated as “yoga is the ability to stay calm in all situations in life”. When we say “all situations in life”, it implies that no matter how dire or desperate the situation may seem, we need to learn how to stay totally calm and peaceful. Only with a calm mind can we handle even the most difficult situation in life effectively and efficiently. The reverse is also true – if we allow the mind to get disturbed, then any decision or action that we take with a disturbed mind cannot be the most effective and, in fact, can bring about negative results.In subsequent sutras, Patanjali talks about the two pillars of yoga practice that will help us achieve that calmness of mind that we are seeking – abhyasa (practice) and vairagya (non-attachment).

abhyaasavairaagyaabhyaaM tannirodhaH (sutra 1.12)

“These mental modifications are restrained by practice and non-attachment”

Definition of Practice

sa tu dIraghakaala-nairantarya-satkaaraasevito dRuDhabhUmiH (sutra 1.14)

“Practice becomes firmly grounded when well attended to for a long time, without break and in all earnestness.”

Definition of Non-attachment

dRushta-anushravika-viShayavitRushNasya vashIkaarasanjnaa vairaagyam (sutra 1.15)

“The consciousness of self-mastery in one who is free from craving for objects seen or heard about is non-attachment.”

Abhyasa (practice)

Here, in sutra 1.14, Patanjali mentions three qualifications for “practice”:

  1. Long time – long time could signify this entire life-time, or longer. Because the purpose of yoga practice is to control the fluctuations of the mind (sutra 1.2), long time could even mean multiple life-times as attainment of samadhi (total absorption in the self) may not be possible in one life. We may or may not attain ‘samadhi’ in this life; however, we all stand to derive all the other benefits from a regular yoga practice.
  2. Without Interruption: Here it strongly suggests fixing a regular schedule for the practice and maintaining it religiously, without interruption. So, let’s say that you decide to practice every morning for 35 minutes. Then, this schedule must be maintained without interruption. A shorter practice done on a regular basis is much more beneficial than to wait for a day when you can spend the full 1.5 hours for your practice.
  3. With reverent devotion: You need to be fully committed to the practice as you appreciate the benefits that it will bring.

Once you start practicing, you will soon begin to realize the benefits of your practice and then your commitment will grow accordingly. The most common reason mentioned for not practicing is lack of time. I can easily appreciate the very busy pace of modern life (especially corporate life) which indeed does not leave much spare time. In addition to work, people have family commitments and other social obligations. So it is definitely a challenge to allocate time for yoga practice. However, as with everything else, it is primarily a matter of setting the right priorities. If you consider your physical and mental health as important, then a regular yoga practice must find its place in your top priorities.

Vairagya (non-attachment)

The word Vairagya is derived from the word Raga which has been defined as the attraction which arises due to pleasure derived from any object. Vairagya therefore means the absence of any attraction towards objects which give pleasure. Vairagya also includes the term ‘dvesha’ (dislike) which arises as a result of repulsion from any object. Raga and dvesha are strong disturbing forces which create disturbances in the mind-field. It is important for the yogi to understand the significance of non-attachment as it is almost impossible to achieve chitta-vritti-nirodha unless one can eliminate raga and dvesha. Even to acheive a state of vairagya, constant practice (abhyasa) is needed.

The word “drishta” (seen) in the sutra is supposed to include the attraction that we feel through all the five senses – sight, touch, smell, taste, hearing. When we have a pleasurable experience through our senses, we develop a strong attachment for that object. This develops a strong desire in us to experience the same pleasure over and over again. It is when that pleasure is unavailable or denied to us for whatever reason, we become extremely unhappy or “stressed out”. That is what causes suffering and pain in us.

In the sutra, ‘vishaya’ are the material objects which produce the attraction and consequent attachment. Desires can be classified in two ways. The first kind are the result of direct perception through the five senses. These are referred to as ‘drishta’ (seen) in the sutra. The second kind are those that followers of the orthodox religion expect to gain in the life after death. These include the desire of going to ‘heaven’ after death. According to our scriptures, even heaven is only a temporary abode and one must come back to human birth after spending a pre-dertermined time in heaven. To achieve final liberation, one must go beyond any such desires. Vairagya does not mean giving up desires because you are sick or old or have other preoccupations. An old man may lose his sex drive for the time-being. This is not vairagya. Vairagya implies conscious elimination of desires which lead to attachment. True vairagya cannot be attained by cutting yourself off from the material world and living in a forest. Real vairagya happens as a result of spiritual evolution which leads to the onset of ‘viveka’ or discrimination. The consciousness of one who has this kind of mastery over the senses has been termed as ‘vashikara samjna’.

The concept of non-attachment has been dealt with in great depth in the Bhagavad Gita. In one of the most often quoted shlokas, Lord Krishna says that we should do our duty without any attachment to the expected outcome of our actions (Bhagavad Gita shloka 2.47). Often our actions are motivated by some expected outcome. For example, we may work hard expecting a raise or a promotion. Non-attachment does not mean that we should not have set goals in life, or that our work is not motivated by goals. Non-attachment simply means that we are not attached to the expected result of our actions. We have full control only over the actions that we do. We do not have full control over what the outcome of our actions will be. However, if we don’t get the result that we expected, we feel miserable, dejected and disheartened. This is where the value of non-attachment comes in. When we understand the value of non-attachment, we accept the results of our actions without emotional upheaval. When the results are unfavorable, we can calmly analyze the whole situation and hopefully do a better job next time so that the projected goals can be achieved. This attitude will help us stay calm and peaceful in even the most difficult situations in life.

http://yogawithsubhash.com/2014/01/13/abhyasa-vairagya/#more-1414